Perspectives on the Function of Teaching and Teaching Styles

In my previous eJournal I tackled regarding “MOVING ON”.  Now I proceed to the First step of the Module 1 which is “Perspective on Teaching”. What is perspective? For me Perspective is  an outlook or view about “good teaching” which aim is to produce Intelligent and effective teaching. According to Pratt, Daniel D. and Associates (1998). Perspective is “an interrelated set of beliefs and intentions that give meaning and justification for our actions.”“They are a lens through which we view the world of teaching and learning.” And thus, we can realize what kind of educator we are, and what kind of learners they are.

I just want to recap as a sort of study, What are the five perspectives of teaching? Is Good teaching: One-size-fits-all? How does Perspective of teaching related to style and strategy of teaching?

As I read the supplementary notes of module 1, I found out that the five perspectives of teachings are as stated in Pratt, Daniel D. and Associates (1998) or I call it in my own words “TADNUS”

  1. Transmission-delivering content; a substantial commitment to the content or subject matter.
  2. Apprenticeship-modeling ways of being; a process of enculturating students into a set of social norms and ways of working.
  3. Developmental – cultivating ways of thinking; must be planned and conducted “from the learner’s point of view”.
  4. Nurturing -facilitating personal agency; assumes that long-term, hard, persistent effort to achieve comes from the heart, as well as the head.
  5. Social Reform – seeking a better society; seeks to change society in substantive ways.

In fact, I answered some of the TPI surveys, conducted by the website: the result is not bad at all.


Mean: 38.4; SD: ±3.26

Perspective totals on or above the first line are DOMINANT for me. Perspective totals in the center line are back-up or mean. Perspective totals on or below the line are RECESSIVE for me.

B = Beliefs What I believe about teaching and learning. I = Intentions What I try to accomplish in my teaching. A = Actions What I do when I’m teaching.Date of survey:09/12/2015 Name of respondent:JORAM CLAVITE Association group:No,I am not a member of any of these groups; Action total: (A)64;Dominant Threshold: (HIT)41.66; Recessive Threshold: (LOT)35.14 Overall Total: (T)192

“I remind myself what philosophical viewpoint each of the five perspectives represents: Transmission, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing, and Social Reform. Remember, these are Teaching Perspectives; not a personality-based ‘styles’ or technical ‘methods’.”(Cited in the text of TPI results.)

“The height of the five large vertical bars on my profile represents how strongly I hold each of the Five Perspectives outlined on the Summary Sheet: Transmission, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing, and Social Reform. Remember that all teachers embody all five views, but in varying degrees”Not to worry!).(Cited in the text of TPI results.)

“High internal consistency (sub-scores within one or two points of each other) means that my Beliefs, Intentions, and Actions are all aligned with each other.”(Cited in the text of TPI results.)

My  Apprenticeship  belongs to the line of  Dominant.  Transmission and Nurture belong to mean or backup, and while Development  and Social reform  belong to recessive.

I realize that the task of being a teacher is not easy. Because all aspects of perspective and style of teaching should  embody and accomplish for the sake of the student growth.Is it now clear that there are multiple and legitimate views on what constitutes ‘good teaching’.

So now, I can say that good teaching is not a one-size-fits-all. It should be double or multiple size. I mean “Good is not enough”. It should be Excellent teaching. Correct me if I’m wrong, the one size fits all is the whole package of the five perspectives of teaching (Transmission, Apprenticeship, Development, Nurturing, and Social Reform)  is that what the statement mean? If that would be the meaning of “one-size-fits all” I agree, but it does not mean that the educator would stop discovering some potential elements of Good or Excellent teaching. Because the teachers know and has a discernment what is being the situation of their classroom as long as the objective is always being there.

The perspective teaching has a connection or association with the style of teaching and its strategy. These three are inseparable. Perspective, Style and Strategy in order to obtain the objective. Style are also part of the strategy of teaching.

For me before I read the textbook, what comes up in my mind,the styles and strategy for becoming an Effective Teacher are:

  1. Collecting data on individual students in the classroom, so that the teacher can decide what would be the best approach of the student.
  2. Being prepared for the lesson before entering the classroom to discuss.
  3. Forget the problem of “Husband and wife problem” or problem of the family.
  4. Being an actor or actresses in the classroom.
  5. Talking with emotion and with life.
  6. The Teacher is open to individual students.
  7. Give small amounts of “food or money” to poor student if in case of emergency.
  8. The teacher should live life with honor and dignity as a role model.
  9. There is an oral recitation.
  10. All students perform in a way of dramatically scene events.

Teaching Styles are: (Cited in the text of Anthony F. Grasha, Ph.D.)

  1. Pushes students to take course content seriously. Not as sensitive to the emotional climate of the classroom. Possesses high standards and tends to be impersonal in his or her approach to students. Does not give feedback easily and may leave some students wondering where they stand. Perceives only a few learners as working up to standards.
  2. Possesses personal charisma and commitment to teaching. Concerned about welfare of students and tries to form one to one relationships with them. Concerned with the values that underlie course content.Impatient with manufactured classroom materials and prefers to spendtime to create his or her own materials. Uses large group, small group,and individualized instructional modes with equal comfort. Prefers,however, to use small group activities and workshop formats when teaching.

CATEGORIES OF TEACHING STYLE (Just click this link to view the document)

Archetypal Forms in Teaching (Just click this link to view the document)

Active Learning and Risk Associated with Teaching Methods (Just click this link to view the document))

According to Anthony Grashas, the five teaching styles are :

  1. Expert-Traditional teacher-centered classroom processes; Encourages Dependent, Participant, Competitive styles, displaying detailed knowledge and by challenging students to enhance their competence. Concerned with transmitting information and ensuring that student are well prepared.
  2. Formal Authority-Concerned with providing positive and negative feedback, establishing learning goals, expectations, and rules of conduct for students. Concerned with the “correct, acceptable, and standard ways to do things.”
  3. Personal Model-Believes in “teaching by personal example” and establishes a prototype for how to think and behave. Oversees, guides, and directs by showing how to do things, and encouraging students to observe and Personal modeling; Guiding and coaching. Encourages Participant, Dependent, Collaborative styles.
  4. Facilitator-Guides students by asking questions, exploring options, suggesting alternatives, and encouraging them to develop criteria to make informed choices. The Overall goal is to develop in students the capacity for independent action and responsibility. Works with students on projects in a consultative fashion and provides much support and encouragement. Collaborative and other student-centered learning processes. Encourages Collaborative, Participant, Independent styles.
  5. Delegator-Concerned with developing students’ capacity to function autonomously. Students work independently on projects or as part of autonomous teams. The teacher is available at the request of students as a resource person. Independent group and individual learning activities. Encourages Independent, Collaborative, Participant styles.

I tried to answer the survey of the teaching style, below is the result.

The result of my survey says that I am in the high score. When dividing each column by 8, the result is 5.25-7.25; 5.6-5.25; 5.5-5.25; 5.5-5.5 and 5.5-5.12. Meaning the result is in the highest score and belong to the line of Formal Authority, Personal Model and Facilitator. The higher the average score, the more participants perceived that teaching style as being displayed in their classes. Formal Authority: “I set high standards in this class.” Personal Model: “What I say and do models appropriate ways for students to think about content issues.” Facilitator: “Small group discussions are employed to help students develop their ability to think critically”.

Yes. I prefer to develop. To develop and explore the teaching style.“To become acculturated and to internalize further the meaning of the results and beliefs.” The result of the style of the teacher would cause advantage and disadvantage. There’s a positive and a negative result.

That’s why it is important that teachers become aware of their teaching styles. In order to know the correct approach or exact style or fit size shown and deliver to the student. The more awareness of teaching style, the more quality and excellent result and the more effect of the objective will be. Example: The teacher style acts as Formal Authority but the capacity of the learners is not fit or cannot grasp the high standard set by the teacher, So the tendency will be loss of interest to go to school. Can lead to rigidity. There is something mismatch or unbalance of the attack.

The more the teacher uses a teaching style the more effective the lesson is. Teaching style is inseparable of aiming to be more effective in teaching. Or Vice Versa. Effective teaching depends on the style used by the teacher. They are co- related and association in each other.  So the teacher should use an appropriate teaching style to have an effective result of the lessons.

The teacher has the right to explore styles of teaching because the teacher knows the whole situation of the class. Only the teachers know the changes of everyday situation of the class. The teacher has the discernment of what is “fit” approach to the student. The teacher has the power and authority to use a teaching style if just in case the teacher needed it badly and urgently. For as long as for just the sake of the whole class, growth, development, social reform, nurturing, improvement , rich discussion of the content and the impact of implementation of the objective.  Teaching perspectives, teaching styles, and teaching strategies related to one another in a way that they are both in one objective-to reach the quality teaching of every side. The side of the teacher and the side of the student. The teacher recognizes what kind of teacher he/she is. And the Student recognized what kind of learners they are. As (Nietzsche, translated by Kaufman & Hollingdale, 1969, p. 119) said,

There is only a perspective seeing, only a perspective “knowing”; and the more affects we allow to speak about one thing, the more eyes, different eyes, we use to observe one thing, the more complete will our “concept” of this thing, our “objectivity” be”. (Cited in the text of Pratt, Daniel D. and Associates (1998).

In conclusion, I even ask myself what kind of teacher I am in the future? Do you?

I hope I can always bring this perspective with correct styles and strategy not just in my daily practical life as a guide, but also in the next application when needed.




Cited in the module by Prof. Roja: Development and Use of The Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI)

Good Teaching: One Size Fits All?
(Pratt, D. D. (2002). Good teaching: one size fits all?. New Directions For Adult & Continuing Education, 5(93).
You may access this resource through the UPOU Library’s EBSCO eDatabase.
(Pratt, D. D. and Associates. (1998). Alternative frames of understanding: An introduction to five perspectives on teaching. In Five Perspectives on Teaching in Adult & Higher Education. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing.)

A Matter of Style: The Teacher as Expert, Formal Authority, Personal Model, Facilitator, and Delegator
(Grasha, A. F. (1994). A matter of style: The teacher as expert, formal authority, personal model, facilitator, and delegator. College Teaching, 42(4), 142-149.)


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