Theories of Intelligence

I still believe that each of us is born unique. Every individual has its own limitation and capacity of reaching the things around the world. I believed that every situation happening of one’s person is under sovereign God’s arrangement.    You are lucky enough if you have a higher abilities compare than the others. Others have normal capacity, contented already of having a passing rate or average rate.  Some are born with mental defect because of genetics abnormalities resulting to down syndrome.

Now, as a human being, if you rate yourself Intelligent to 1-10, what will be your rate? You yourself can answer this question. Because you are the one who handle yourself.

I ask myself, Am I intelligent? My answer is, I cannot tell as of now, because they’re still part of the journey that I did not yet  experience like inability in singing, dancing, acting, sports  and etc. that need to explore further and prove if I have such talent and abilities. On the other hand, I can say maybe, because I experienced already some other aspect during my college days, but that’s not enough to say that I am totally intelligent.   Well, as of now I am contented to say “Average”.

I’m not perfect. Nobody’s perfect, but in the common saying says “Practice makes Perfect”.  So meaning to say as long as you live, as long as you have normal life you can become perfect. Intelligent, wise you are perfect, your love life is perfect, family life too. Financially stable, Obtain higher education, high salary, famous, has perfect house and car because of brilliant Intelligent.  The more you become brilliant Intelligent, the more you become perfect. Really? I cannot say because I did not yet experience of Brilliant Intelligent.

According to research, practice alone is not enough to become perfect. Indeed, mere practice can lead youngsters to entrench their old patterns of thinking rather than Repatterning and depatterning to develop more effective thinking. Learning better ways of patterning, Repatterning, and depatterning, and adapt this “Mindware” to their own needs or even invent their own mindware, are much more likely to develop thinking. Better thinking typically means not just smoother, faster thinking, which practice alone would yield, but fundamentally reorganized thinking, which requires point blank attention to Mindware.

In my experience, I can conclude that It’s a matter of quality teaching on the family, society, and community and past experiences of the school. How the  family developed or nurture in the early childhood. How the environment, the community, society help the child to discover Intelligent.  When I was in college, I argue with one of my teachers because the concept of her teaching is contradicts with the teaching I learned when I was in High school.  I realized at that time that not all teachers teach correct teaching. It affects the level of Intelligent, because what you are expect is correct is wrong with the other teacher. It’s hard to adjust your knowledge because of confusion.

I don’t believe that Intelligent is Inherited. Because the parents of a child are intelligent does not mean that their child will be as intelligent as they are. In fact: our genes define only the framework of our intelligence, which means that our genes are not responsible for how intelligent we become as they only define the maximum of intelligence we could achieve. Scientific research by the British psychologist Dr. Burton (amongst others) with identical twins, which were separated at birth has shown that about 60% of our intelligence depending on genetic factors (important: these genetic factors only set the framework) and 40% depend on environmental factors.

Sternberg believes that all human beings have the capacity to continue growing in these three domains, and he encourages educators to enhance them all (Sternberg, Torff, & Grigorenko, 1998).

  • Analytical intelligencein which comparisons, evaluations, and assessments are made.
  • Creative intelligenceinvolving imagination, design, and invention.
  • Practical intelligencein which use, practicality, and demonstration are paramount.

David Perkins (1995) further supports the theory that intelligence can be taught and learned. He believes that three important mechanisms underlie intelligence:

  • Neural intelligenceis the “genetically determined, hard-wired original equipment” that one has inherited and that determines the speed and efficiency of one’s brain. Neural intelligence cannot be altered much.
  • Experiential intelligenceis context-specific knowledge that is accumulated through experience. It means knowing one’s way around the various settings and contexts in which one functions. A person’s reservoir of experiential intelligence can be expanded.
  • Reflective intelligenceis the “good use of the mind; the artful deployment of our faculties of thinking.” It includes self-managing, self-monitoring, and self-modifying. Perkins refers to this capacity as “mindware” (p. 264), and it can and should be cultivated.

I agree that intelligence can be taught because in our daily living we are always dealing with interchanging, interacting and sharing of thoughts and ideas. Communicating and experiencing. From that dealing we develop our skills and talents through experience. From our experience, we can reflect what we learn and realize that that our intelligent develop and enhance more. As David Perkins saysis the “good use of the mind; the artful deployment of our faculties of thinking.” It includes self-managing, self-monitoring, and self-modifying. Perkins refers to this capacity as “Mindware” (p. 264), and it can and should be cultivated. Thus, we can cultivate our intelligence through instruction, trying to solve problem solving, metacognition, and strategic thinking.


A teacher who is skillful in developing PBL (Project base learning) can help students to design projects that are consistent with their learning abilities and interests.

Intelligence Examples Discussion
Bodily-kinesthetic Dancers, athletes, surgeons, crafts people The ability to use one’s physical body well.
Interpersonal Sales people, teachers, clinicians, politicians, religious leaders The ability to sense other’s feelings and be in tune with others.
Intrapersonal People who have good insight into themselves and make effective use of their other intelligences Self-awareness. The ability to know your own body and mind.
Linguistic Poets, writers, orators, communicators The ability to communicate well, perhaps both orally and in writing, perhaps in several languages.
Logical-mathematical Mathematicians, logicians The ability to learn higher mathematics. The ability to handle complex logical arguments.
Musical Musicians, composers The ability to learn, perform, and compose music.
Naturalistic Biologists, naturalists The ability to understand different species, recognize patterns in nature, classify natural objects.
Spatial Sailors navigating without modern navigational aids, surgeons, sculptors, painters The ability to know where you are relative to fixed locations. The ability to accomplish tasks requiring three-dimensional visualization and placement of your hands or other parts of your body.

Luis Alberto Machado (1980), former Venezuelan minister of intellectual development, reminds us that all human beings have a basic right to the full development of their intellect. More and more government leaders in the United States and other nations are realizing that the level of a country’s overall development depends on the level of its people’s intellectual development. Industrial leaders realize that to survive and progress, any corporation must invest in its intellectual capital by continuing to enhance the mental resources of its employees. Educators, too, are realizing that our minds, bodies, and emotions must be engaged and transformed for learning to occur.

Therefore, not just taking vitamins, eating peanuts, drinking milk, memory enhancer, listening classical music can boost intelligent, but rather it through hard work and a good attitude. The accumulation of experience through practice and perseverance one can actually increase their effectiveness in a certain area, making IQ even more arbitrary. So there’s no excuses and limited believes such as “I wasn’t born intelligent” or “My parents weren’t that intelligent as well” as it depends on ourselves if we make use of the potential we have inherited or not. Intelligence can be trained even when we have already become adults and even more positive: we can become more intelligent as well.

Reference: Module 2, Supplement-Theories of Intelligence by Prof. Malou T.  Juachon; David Parkins; By Steve Mueller Last edit: February 6th, 2015; GARDNER, HOWARD;(Sternberg, Torff, & Grigorenko, 1998).


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