CHANGING PERSPECTIVES?

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MEMORY CAPACITY AND SPEED

Sometimes I wish to be a computer, which has a big memory capacity, manipulates information, or data. And has the ability to storeretrieve, and process data in a flash speed. Nevertheless, the computer is under the program of a man. But man, I don’t think so if a man has such memory capacity and speed like a computer.

In terms of my ability to learn, of course, I want to be better than any computer in all aspects of processing information.  It’s better to know all the process and procedure (Procedural Knowledge) rather than to know only how to operate (Declarative Knowledge). To install the computer, need more procedure to follow ( Power switch at the back, anti-static wrist strap, mother board, RAM(Random Access Memory, CPU and the socket , hard drive, CD(compact Disk)/DVD(Digital Video Disc) ROM(Read Only Memory)and video card).  But it is rewarding after installing the computer. Especially, if the computer  function immediately after turning on.

If all men, the same with the computer’s memory, perhaps all are of the highest level of Intelligence. The learning process is faster than an ordinary human being. This module showed us different kinds of memory, namely: Sensory Memory, Short term Memory, Long Term Memory (Explicit- (Declarative Memory-(Episodic Memory and Semantic Memory) and Implicit memory (Procedural Memory).

                     Image adapted from the Module 3B-Theories of Learning

What kind of Memory do you have? If your memory manipulates data and information in a  faster way, you are gifted. Gifted thinkers are rarely one-mode thinkers. Rather, they are great organizers of diverse and multimodal information. For teachers and parents of young gifted thinkers, we begin to understand why certain young, gifted thinker go awry, and why organization should be an essential aspect of gifted education. Sternberg and Davidson (1985) concluded that information processing of gifted children is similar to that of adults in capitalizing on patterns of information using environmental shaping techniques, having, exceptional problem-finding ability, and exceptional ability to conceive higher order relations.

For me, I am just an ordinary human being. A normal balance of human. I can remember my first teacher in Grade one, but I forgot already my teacher in Kindergarten. My first classroom like was  The classroom is organized. A place for everything and everything in its place. Only I take a second to retrieve this information. My remotest childhood memory was all of my peers going to the river and then swam, riding on a tire from the mountain until to the deep water. We’re enjoying jumping on the diving board and we’re going back home until 5:00 o’clock in the afternoon without lunch.  I’m on my working memory (Short term Memory) and (Long term Memory). I always use my Long term Memory. Every time I have seen photo from my previous batch mate. I don’t know I can recognize with them. Every time I drive my car (Procedural Memory). And Every time I played scrabble, or word games, I challenge my Semantic Memory. I always remember the events of my first day of school during my elementary days (Episodic Memory).

It’s a normal of human to forget sometimes. It’s merely due to a lack of good retrieval cues. One possible explanation retrieval failure is known as decay theory. Another theory known as interference theory -memories compete and interfere with other memories. When information is very similar to other information that was previously stored in memory, interference is more likely to occur. (Proactive and Retroactive interference). Suppression, a conscious form of forgetting, and repression, an unconscious form of forgetting.  Memories of painful or traumatic life events are far less likely to be remembered, discussed, or rehearsed.

This is my first time to hear regarding primacy-recency. I was enlightened with this principle because I thought in transmitting the discussion, there’s no need to apply primacy-recency principle. After reading this module. My memory was restoring my past event when I was in High School and College. I was realizing, the reason why there’s  a misconception regarding delivering or transmitting knowledge using the traditional way of teaching. This is what happened to me. When I was in college, I confused with some other knowledge because of different belief. Some other teacher is not using primacy-recency. The reason why I got the wrong answer in my exam because what I remember is the wrong answer. It is important to use primacy-recency teaching first the new information of skills during prime-time-1, since it is most likely to be remembered.  The students will remember almost any information coming forth at this time. It is important, then, that only correct information be presented. They were mentioned during the most powerful retention position, prime-time-1. The new material being taught should be followed by practice or review during the down-time.The teacher should follow the proper prioritizing transmitting the knowledge. Prime-time-1, then followed by prime-time-2).

 

 

References:

Wikihow How to Install computer hardware
http://www.wikihow.com/Install-Computer-Hardware

Kendra Cherry (2015) About Education ,What Is Long-Term Memory?http://psychology.about.com/od/memory/f/long-term-memory.htm

Kendra Cherry (2015) About Education ,Explanations for Forgettinghttp://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/tp/explanations-for-forgetting.htm

Prof. Malou T. Juancho, Module 3B COGNITIVIST APPROACH, Theories of learning.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE DUPLICATORS of Human Behavior

                           Image adapted from google photos

“If other’s can do, why can’t I?”  This is what l always says every time I experience struggling.  There’s a strong belief that someday, I made a duplication to those people whom I want to be. In short, I wanted also the same with them. I wanted to learn and behave as what how they learn and behave.

As humans, we are constantly learning. We learn in a number of different ways. We adapt and process information about everything in our world from communication, from television, from the internet; even Facebook shapes the way we learn! One of the ways in which we learn is by observing others. Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory suggests that people learn from one another via observation, imitation, and modeling. (Hollie Hancock (About.com)

In imitation, there should be an awareness that it resulted into positive and negative impact. Not all imitators have a good effect on himself. It should be noted that there’s an intelligent selection of what you wanted to be imitated. We have to be wise also that we imitate behaviors, those behaviors who can lead  to achieving our goals.   Especially nowadays, the children are being exposed to television, movies, video games, and other media. We have to strictly guard the children not to expose in a bad influence that can turn into failures in their future. Children have the intense to imitate what they saw. If they saw bad effect, there’s a tendency also to effect a bad influence that can harm their behavior. Not only of himself will be affected, but also in the whole community and society.

Teachers have a big role and influence that can change the behavior of the adolescent and young minds. In this world we cannot avoid  the “good and evil” “right and wrong” practices of some of our students. That’s why teacher is the most role model in the world. The best Mentor and most behave in the world.

The behavior that most important for learners to acquire is to gain self-efficacy. High level of self-Efficacy have a positive effect on behavior management as well as academic and achievement. A behavior that can produce a  positive result in determining how the way to be succeeded. The higher the sense of efficacy, the greater the effort, persistence, and resilience. It’s depend on the degree of beliefs and solid experience to determine the success. The lower self-efficacy is the lower the chance to develop an ability that influence one person.  One way to raise self-efficacy beliefs is to improve physical and emotional well-being and reduce negative emotional states. Because individuals have the capability to alter their own thinking and feeling, enhanced self-efficacy beliefs can, in turn, powerfully influence the physiological states themselves.

Although, our  individual’s behavior influences and is influenced by both the social world and personal characteristics. All three systems(behavior,environment, and characteristic)  interact with each other; therefore, a change in one will influence the others as well. Reciprocal determinism indicates that people do have a say in their future, because of reciprocal interactions.” Some scenario below of how the reciprocal interaction goes through.

The teacher with character demonstrates the integrity is a prize position. Served as a role model for telling the truth, respecting others, accepting and fulfilling responsibilities, playing fair, earning and returning trust, and living a moral life. Model the importance of engaging of a lifelong quest to do the harder right, rather than the easier wrong. Teach the students that individual makes morally principled decision through the moral reasoning process. Helps the student knows what their values are. Integrity, honesty, trust, fairness, respect, and responsibility should characterize teachers in their relationship with the student. Teachers with character deal honestly with a student in a trustworthy manner, nurture in a mutual trust and respect with and among student, treat others respectfully by believing the inherent dignity of every person, and execute their responsibilities in morally accountable ways. Society is best served when teachers teach and model, and student develop character and moral virtues.  Providing a “real world” classroom scenario below:

A. ) For example: “Girlish behavior” of a man. The man lives in an environment that majority is a girl. All are girl except the father and the son (man). The son acts like a girl, because what he sees always since his birth is like a girl habit. The way he speaks, acts like a soft gesture and movement. At age of 15, the son was transferred in another environment. Environment for all boys. He enrolled in the military academy, and then after 5 years of training, when he comes back in their place He changed his behavior. He acts as a man. He became hardy, strong and brave man.

B.) One of the student experience bullying from his classmate. His classmate is a member of the fraternity. Every time the student refuse what his classmates wants, His classmate beat and kick him. At the time that this student enter into fraternity and became a member, he himself beat and kick in the new guy that wants to enter the fraternity.

C.) Judgmental behavior. At the beginning of the class, there is a cleft palate girl. She is not the  shy type. She is a positive girl despite of her defect. Because she is immune already that people around her judged her according to her defect. She is friendly, and wants to make friends with all her classmates around her. But her classmates don’t want to make friends with her, because she is different among from her classmates. One day, there’s one new guy, a new transfer from another place, who became friend with this cleft palate girl. Every time the classmates misjudge or quirking and jesting with  her, He defended by a convincing word, getting verbal encouragement, by persuading a conversation “that people have no right to judge”. Despite of her defect people should have respect with her, the same respect we show to others. ‘Who we are to judge”. We are the same race of humankind. ‘Do not do unto other, what do you not want others do unto you.” Starting at that time the whole classroom, respected each other.

                           Image adapted from the http://pixgood.com/social-cognitive-theory-reciprocal-determinism.html

That’s why , It is very important to have a role model and mentor in our life. Through them, we’re guided into true human until we know who we are.Were just  duplicating from them.Below are the Models and Mentors in my life:

Models and Mentors in My Life link(Just click this link for viewing purposes).

In closing this journey, I would like to ask, Will you be an Imitator? Or You’re just a role Model.

References:

Angela Lumpkin February 2008, Teachers as a Role Model Teaching Character and Moral virtues pg. 49. http://www.csuchico.edu/kine/documents/teachersasrolemodels.pdf

Karen Kidwell 2015 Characteristics of Highly Effective Teaching and Learning (CHETL) http://education.ky.gov/curriculum/standards/teachtools/Pages/Characteristics-of-Highly-Effective-Teaching-and-Learning-(CHETL).aspx

Teacher Vision-https://www.teachervision.com/teaching-methods/classroom-management/7236.html

(Lee, Encyclopedia of School Psychology, 2005) http://psychology.about.com/od/socialpsychology/f/reciprocal-determinism.htm

(Kendra Cherry- What Is Reciprocal Determinism? http://psychology.about.com/od/socialpsychology/f/reciprocal-determinism.htm

(Richard Culatta, 2012) Social Learning Theory1

BEHAVIORISM- “I AM WHAT I AM”

                                

 

Image adapted from google search

In my daily living, I have a notion that as long as I am happy regardless of my behavior , I am satisfied with it.  I did not give so much meaning or attention of what my behavior is.  What I believe before is that behavior is natural, influenced by my environment and I thought that was remaining constant. Not changeable at all. Or What “I am, I am” I am what I am.

I was enlightened  this with module 3, because it talks about behaviorism.  It discusses a different aspect of behavior in accordance with the Behaviorist expert and Psychologist.

Now, my notion before was inevitably change,   behavior has a way to change. There is a change of behavior when  learning occurs.  Learning that occurs without the use of reinforcement and punishment, does not account for other types of learning.

One Psychologist, John B. Watson says any person, regardless of his or her background, could be trained to act in a particular manner given the right conditionins. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our actions.

In our home, I have this habit behavior of daily routine schedule. I have this practice not to overlap  within that limit of habit schedule. Every Sunday we have this habit to go to the church, then going to the food chain, then going to the grocery and to have some leisure of some sports activities. When the time comes that this habit was changed after going to church there is no more leisure, there is no more family dinner then suddenly my behavior of going to church was changed. I don’t like anymore to go to church.

I realize that I am pleased  to go to church if there is a reward. If there’s an opportunity that makes me happy. But if the situation is sad I don’t want to repeat it again. Through admonishing of the teaching of the church I felt like a sheep that to follow to go to church always. I brought to my emotion which In effect, to the teaching of the pastor.

If there are reinforcement and punishment, my behavior will become undesirable. Base on my observation a person’s behavior/s turned out to be unpleasant if a person experience unpleasant situation such as bullying, maltreated, oppressed, offended and downtrodden. This experience can cause change of behavior into negative effect. There’s an intentional punishment which turns into a disadvantage and resulting to dismay, lose one nerve, scared and frighten to the next situation. Resulting to phobia that will scare to repeat again.

But if such punishment and reinforcement would give positive effect, like realization and there’s an acceptance of guiltiness after punishment so then there’s a change of emotional behavior. Example I have been punished because I stole the money in the drawer of mom. Then after the punishment I felt like guiltiness which in turn makes my behavior change that to promise that I will not repeat It  again. There’s a modification of behavior into a positive result.

I prefer to be regulated in school. In school my behavior was keen to observant and aware. Because people around you in school is not your biological family. My action and deed is not the same at home.

At home, I felt comforted. There’s a regulation, but there’s a consideration of all times because “family mercy”. “I am that I am” is a matter of the behavior of the beholder.    

Indeed,  Behavior is the result of stimulus – response (i.e. all behavior, no matter how complex, can be reduced to a simple stimulus – response association). Watson described the purpose of psychology as: “To predict, given the stimulus, what reaction will take place; or, given the reaction, state what the situation or stimulus is that has caused the reaction” (1930, p. 11).

Image adapted from Unicef and google search

References: (Cited in the Module by Prof. Malou Juachon-Behaviorism, Kendra                               Cherry, 2005; Behaviorist  Approach (Saul McLeod, 200; 2013);                                   Cited  in the text by Classical Conditioning (Kendra Cherry, 2005);                               Classical  Conditioning; (LearningTheories.com, 2014)

Theories of Intelligence

I still believe that each of us is born unique. Every individual has its own limitation and capacity of reaching the things around the world. I believed that every situation happening of one’s person is under sovereign God’s arrangement.    You are lucky enough if you have a higher abilities compare than the others. Others have normal capacity, contented already of having a passing rate or average rate.  Some are born with mental defect because of genetics abnormalities resulting to down syndrome.

Now, as a human being, if you rate yourself Intelligent to 1-10, what will be your rate? You yourself can answer this question. Because you are the one who handle yourself.

I ask myself, Am I intelligent? My answer is, I cannot tell as of now, because they’re still part of the journey that I did not yet  experience like inability in singing, dancing, acting, sports  and etc. that need to explore further and prove if I have such talent and abilities. On the other hand, I can say maybe, because I experienced already some other aspect during my college days, but that’s not enough to say that I am totally intelligent.   Well, as of now I am contented to say “Average”.

I’m not perfect. Nobody’s perfect, but in the common saying says “Practice makes Perfect”.  So meaning to say as long as you live, as long as you have normal life you can become perfect. Intelligent, wise you are perfect, your love life is perfect, family life too. Financially stable, Obtain higher education, high salary, famous, has perfect house and car because of brilliant Intelligent.  The more you become brilliant Intelligent, the more you become perfect. Really? I cannot say because I did not yet experience of Brilliant Intelligent.

According to research, practice alone is not enough to become perfect. Indeed, mere practice can lead youngsters to entrench their old patterns of thinking rather than Repatterning and depatterning to develop more effective thinking. Learning better ways of patterning, Repatterning, and depatterning, and adapt this “Mindware” to their own needs or even invent their own mindware, are much more likely to develop thinking. Better thinking typically means not just smoother, faster thinking, which practice alone would yield, but fundamentally reorganized thinking, which requires point blank attention to Mindware.

In my experience, I can conclude that It’s a matter of quality teaching on the family, society, and community and past experiences of the school. How the  family developed or nurture in the early childhood. How the environment, the community, society help the child to discover Intelligent.  When I was in college, I argue with one of my teachers because the concept of her teaching is contradicts with the teaching I learned when I was in High school.  I realized at that time that not all teachers teach correct teaching. It affects the level of Intelligent, because what you are expect is correct is wrong with the other teacher. It’s hard to adjust your knowledge because of confusion.

I don’t believe that Intelligent is Inherited. Because the parents of a child are intelligent does not mean that their child will be as intelligent as they are. In fact: our genes define only the framework of our intelligence, which means that our genes are not responsible for how intelligent we become as they only define the maximum of intelligence we could achieve. Scientific research by the British psychologist Dr. Burton (amongst others) with identical twins, which were separated at birth has shown that about 60% of our intelligence depending on genetic factors (important: these genetic factors only set the framework) and 40% depend on environmental factors.

Sternberg believes that all human beings have the capacity to continue growing in these three domains, and he encourages educators to enhance them all (Sternberg, Torff, & Grigorenko, 1998).

  • Analytical intelligencein which comparisons, evaluations, and assessments are made.
  • Creative intelligenceinvolving imagination, design, and invention.
  • Practical intelligencein which use, practicality, and demonstration are paramount.

David Perkins (1995) further supports the theory that intelligence can be taught and learned. He believes that three important mechanisms underlie intelligence:

  • Neural intelligenceis the “genetically determined, hard-wired original equipment” that one has inherited and that determines the speed and efficiency of one’s brain. Neural intelligence cannot be altered much.
  • Experiential intelligenceis context-specific knowledge that is accumulated through experience. It means knowing one’s way around the various settings and contexts in which one functions. A person’s reservoir of experiential intelligence can be expanded.
  • Reflective intelligenceis the “good use of the mind; the artful deployment of our faculties of thinking.” It includes self-managing, self-monitoring, and self-modifying. Perkins refers to this capacity as “mindware” (p. 264), and it can and should be cultivated.

I agree that intelligence can be taught because in our daily living we are always dealing with interchanging, interacting and sharing of thoughts and ideas. Communicating and experiencing. From that dealing we develop our skills and talents through experience. From our experience, we can reflect what we learn and realize that that our intelligent develop and enhance more. As David Perkins saysis the “good use of the mind; the artful deployment of our faculties of thinking.” It includes self-managing, self-monitoring, and self-modifying. Perkins refers to this capacity as “Mindware” (p. 264), and it can and should be cultivated. Thus, we can cultivate our intelligence through instruction, trying to solve problem solving, metacognition, and strategic thinking.

 

A teacher who is skillful in developing PBL (Project base learning) can help students to design projects that are consistent with their learning abilities and interests.

Intelligence Examples Discussion
Bodily-kinesthetic Dancers, athletes, surgeons, crafts people The ability to use one’s physical body well.
Interpersonal Sales people, teachers, clinicians, politicians, religious leaders The ability to sense other’s feelings and be in tune with others.
Intrapersonal People who have good insight into themselves and make effective use of their other intelligences Self-awareness. The ability to know your own body and mind.
Linguistic Poets, writers, orators, communicators The ability to communicate well, perhaps both orally and in writing, perhaps in several languages.
Logical-mathematical Mathematicians, logicians The ability to learn higher mathematics. The ability to handle complex logical arguments.
Musical Musicians, composers The ability to learn, perform, and compose music.
Naturalistic Biologists, naturalists The ability to understand different species, recognize patterns in nature, classify natural objects.
Spatial Sailors navigating without modern navigational aids, surgeons, sculptors, painters The ability to know where you are relative to fixed locations. The ability to accomplish tasks requiring three-dimensional visualization and placement of your hands or other parts of your body.

Luis Alberto Machado (1980), former Venezuelan minister of intellectual development, reminds us that all human beings have a basic right to the full development of their intellect. More and more government leaders in the United States and other nations are realizing that the level of a country’s overall development depends on the level of its people’s intellectual development. Industrial leaders realize that to survive and progress, any corporation must invest in its intellectual capital by continuing to enhance the mental resources of its employees. Educators, too, are realizing that our minds, bodies, and emotions must be engaged and transformed for learning to occur.

Therefore, not just taking vitamins, eating peanuts, drinking milk, memory enhancer, listening classical music can boost intelligent, but rather it through hard work and a good attitude. The accumulation of experience through practice and perseverance one can actually increase their effectiveness in a certain area, making IQ even more arbitrary. So there’s no excuses and limited believes such as “I wasn’t born intelligent” or “My parents weren’t that intelligent as well” as it depends on ourselves if we make use of the potential we have inherited or not. Intelligence can be trained even when we have already become adults and even more positive: we can become more intelligent as well.

Reference: Module 2, Supplement-Theories of Intelligence by Prof. Malou T.  Juachon; David Parkins; By Steve Mueller Last edit: February 6th, 2015; GARDNER, HOWARD;(Sternberg, Torff, & Grigorenko, 1998).