continuation of Module 3B- “RELATIONSHIP”

 “RELATIONSHIP”

It’s a ridiculous thing to think that the teacher and student has a relationship. “Hahahaha”.  Isn’t funny or a kind of intrigue?  Sometimes we think of a relationship something critical. But what I want to emphasize is the positive relationship among teacher and student. Not a relationship of being an “affair”, that’s another story.   For me, it’s a serious thing. It’s about strategy of effective teaching.  Effective teaching of a teacher comes up when  there is a positive teacher –Student relationship  and rapport created by the teacher.

The teachers should think about creating positive teacher-student relationships and rapport. Why? Because “academic achievement and student behavior are influenced by the quality of the teacher and student relationship” (Jones 95). The more the teacher connects or communicates with his or her students, the more likely they will be able to help students learn at a high level and accomplish quickly.

The teacher has an Interpersonal skill a life skill, which use every day to communicate and interact with other people, individually and in groups. Include not only to communicate to others, but also confidence, and  ability to listen and understand. Sometimes, even a small amount of money and sharing of “baon” to the poverty student can help of being an effective teacher.

  • Self-esteem also affects students’ mental health outcomes including reducing anxiety and symptoms of depression (Orth et al., 2012). Self-esteem is especially important during adolescence and helps students develop a positive sense of self (Orth et al., 2012). A positive sense of self in adolescence leads to future outcomes including relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, occupational status, emotional regulation, and physical health (Orth et al., 2012). The support of positive teacher-student relationships for self-esteem and related social outcomes affects students during schooling as well as in their future educational and occupational outcomes (Orth et al., 2012).
  • Teacher-student relationships can have a significant effect on the peer acceptance of students. Teachers’ interactions with students can affect classmates’ perceptions of individual students, in turn affecting which students classmates choose to interact with and accept (Hughes et al., 1999). Conflicting interactions between teachers and students may convey a lack of acceptance, causing other students to also reject the student involved in the conflict with the teacher (Hughes et al., 1999). Peer rejection significantly impacts self-esteem of students leading to several negative social outcomes (Hughes et al., 1999).
  • Teachers have the unique opportunity to support students’ academic and social development at all levels of schooling (Baker et al., 2008; Bronfenbrenner, 1979; Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998; McCormick, Cappella, O’Connor, & McClowry, in press)
  • Aligned with attachment theory (Ainsworth, 1982; Bowlby, 1969), positive teacher-student relationships enable students to feel safe and secure in their learning environments and provide scaffolding for important social and academic skills (Baker et al., 2008; O’Connor, Dearing, & Collins, 2011; Silver, Measelle, Armstron, & Essex, 2005).
  • Teachers who support students in the learning environment can positively impact their social and academic outcomes, which is important for the long-term trajectory of school and eventually employment (Baker et al., 2008; O’Connor et al., 2011; Silver et al., 2005).
  • Become supportive spaces in which students can engage in academically and socially productive ways (Hamre & Pianta, 2001).
  • Because of the risks associated with poverty (Murray & Malmgren, Risk outcomes associated with poverty include high rates of high school dropout, lower rates of college applications, low self-efficacy, and low self-confidence (Murray & Malmgren, 2005).                                                                                                                               I have a tip with you how Interpersonal skill becomes an effective.

Rhetorical Techniques for Delivering Communication:

Verbal techniques help your audience understand what is being said.

  • Vary the speed & tone of your voice to keep your voice interesting to listen to.
  • Project your voiceto be easily heard and to show confidence in what you are saying.
  • Pause to gain attention, emphasize transitions in material, and allow students the opportunity to digest information.

Non-Verbal techniques help your audience be receptive to what you are saying.

  • Maintain eye contact with the audience and stand up straight to project confidence.
  • Smileto communicate that you value what you are saying.
  • Use movement to convey energy and enthusiasm but avoid excessive gesturing and distracting clothing, because they can divert attention from your message.
  • Project excitement and energy to capture your audience’s attention.

Media helps to explain complex ideas. Use it to enhance, not distract, from your message.

  • A chalk board or dry-erase board can allow you to be dynamic, and can be used to show a process unfolding or articulate the reasoning behind a derivation.
  • Slide presentationsare useful for organizing a variety of visual, audio or animated information and can be used to emphasize key points and summarize ideas.
  • Videos and animations can illustrate dynamic processes and provide a sense of scale.
  • Audio clipscan introduce a new voice into the classroom (often from another time/place) and illustrate the sounds of physical processes (e.g. a heart murmur in a medical class).
  • Artifactsbring elements of the “real” into the class (e.g., meteorites or historical objects).
  • Handouts, whether paper or electronic, are an effective way to share detailed information and images with students.

Rhetorical Techniques for Structuring Communication:

Get the students interested:

  • Connect the day’s topic to the students’ interests, experience, and prior knowledgeto spark students’ curiosity and explain why it’s valuable or useful for them.
  • Provide an engaging example or anecdotethat the students can connect to, as emotional connections are more memorable than raw facts.

Organize the class:

  • Structure the class in a logical way; e.g., frame the topic as a story, present a problem then develop its solution, describe events and processes chronologically or show the relationship of interconnected ideas to an overarching theme.
  • Share an outline to help the students organize and assimilate their learning.
  • Make explicit transitions between topicsto help students follow along; e.g., use verbal signposting such as mini-summaries or link a new topic to the one prior.

Clarify the purpose or goal of the class:

  • Repeat key ideas and concepts to emphasize their importance to students and help students to understand them; e.g., summarize key points, compare and contrast ideas with each other, or provide metaphors and analogies.
  • Focus on major pointsand have students seek additional information in other activities.

Techniques for Getting Feedback In Your Classroom:

Seek feedback from your students to judge your pacing and frame your instruction to meet their needs.

Observe the students’ body language:

  • Are they looking at you or are they gazing out the window?  Are they taking notes, raising their hands and nodding along?  Do you see yawns, shuffling chairs, students whispering or glazed looks?

Use questions to find out what your students know and understand:

  • Encourage students to ask questionsto discover their areas of interest and confusion.
  • Pose questions for students to answer that get them to test their own knowledge. You can have the students speak in small groups, write out short answers, or ask for a response from ~1-3 members of the class.

Collect written feedback: 

  • Ask students to complete a brief online survey before or after class to find out what questions they have after a reading, assignment or lecture.
  • Prompt students to write a response to an open question during a class to give students the opportunity to organize their own thoughts and provide you with a quick diagnostic of how they are doing.

Especially, in a diverse situation, the relationship between teacher-student is not so explicit. Students have different kind of behavior, which the teacher hard to adapt sometimes. Ethnicity, Culture, Sometimes cultural differences makes the teachers and students argued. The teacher loses temper if the student followed their will. So the teacher should remain calm.  Where teachers and administrators feel increased pressure to meet state guidelines and community expectations yet they are at a loss for approaches that actually increase classroom achievement for these groups. However, there are some commonalities among these diverse groups that make them more amenable to some specific types of interventions than others.

Some other diverse groups, like those students diagnosed with ADHD or special needs, show problems with attention and working memory skills. As classroom teachers are aware, attention and memory problems are difficult to “teach around” and pose a challenge for classroom management as well. Teachers may feel they spend 95% of their time trying to accommodate the 5% of learners who struggle to attend or cannot easily retain information presented in class. Interventions that focus specifically on enhancing attention and memory skills have been proven to result in increased academic achievement. As Anna Harris says:

I’ll tell you this: There are some people, and then there are others!

(Anna Harris)

Individual differences, Group differences distinguishing between individual and

group differences is convenient, but a bit arbitrary.  Individual styles of learning and thinking, cognitive styles, such as field dependence & independence. impulsivity as compared to reflectivity. Multiple Intelligence,includes Gifted and talented students. usually involves a mixture of acceleration and enrichment of the usual curriculum (Schiever & Maker, 2003). Gender differences in the classroom, Differences in cultural expectations and styles, Bilingualism: language differences in the classroom. Language differences as such, students differ according to culture in how language is used or practiced—in taking turns at speaking, in eye contact, social distance, wait time, and the use of questions. Some of these differences in practice stem from cultural differences in attitudes about self-identity, with non-Anglo culturally tending to support a more interdependent view of the self than Anglo culture or the schools. Differences in attitudes and in use of language have several consequences for teachers. In particular—where appropriate—they should consider using cooperative activities, avoid highlighting individuals’ accomplishments or failures, and be patient about students’ learning to be punctual. Students with an oppositional identity may prove hard to reach, but flexibility in teaching strategies can be very helpful in reaching a wide range of students, regardless of their cultural backgrounds. All of these diversity can make the teacher challenges of being a professional in their chosen field. 

Every challenges teachers have to overcome in his or her career.

, professional or governmental organizations or associations that may help.  Being an accomplished instructor can be a bit like being a scavenger, collecting materials over a lifetime of teaching to develop a comprehensive set of teaching support materials.  New faculty members should begin developing a wish list of materials and thinking about ways to go about procuring them.

Student skills
All faculty face students with a wide range of skills, abilities, and experiences. Being aware of the range and how to support students to help them each learn is a characteristic of an accomplished instructor.  There are external supports on each campus in the form of centers for writing, math, and computer skills.  There are counseling centers to help students address emotional issues that may interfere with learning.  Some skills are discipline specific and need to be explicitly taught.  These can be incorporated into course content, or required as modules to be completed outside of class, as appropriate.  Accomplished faculty address the diverse needs of their students by becoming aware of the needs, locating resources to support students and making referrals, and teaching those skills that are critical to student learning success.

Student behavior
In spite of college students being adults, their expectations for what is appropriate in a college classroom varies widely.  New faculty members need to address behavior directly.  Most often appropriate behavior is addressed in the form of policies outlined in the course syllabus and discussed when going over the syllabus.  If issues still arise, it is most effective to address them quickly and directly.  Issues may include: plagiarism, ethical dilemmas, rudeness, disrespect, attendance, lack of preparation for class, interruptions or inattentiveness, among others.  New faculty members are most successful when they have anticipated the possible issues, and determined a response in advance.  Many issues are appropriately addressed in the syllabus, and discussed at the beginning of class.  This practice helps avoid many problems by clarifying expectations and consequences before an incident occurs.

Classroom environment
College classrooms are shared by many people and this multi-use situation can cause challenges.  Classrooms may be occupied when class is scheduled to begin, tables and desks may be dirty, trash left behind by previous students, trash cans overflowing, whiteboards may be filled with writing from other classes, equipment broken or malfunctioning, or furniture may have been rearranged.  Some classes have more enrolled students than chairs, others are awkwardly arranged for the style of teaching planned.  Many campuses are overcrowded leaving few options, but new faculty members can be prepared by looking at the space assigned and finding out if there are alternative spaces available, alternative ways to arrange the room, replacement equipment or repair personnel available, or alternative equipment types to support their teaching.  You will never know unless you ask, and do a bit of investigation.  Sometimes the squeaky wheel does get the grease.

Issues of difference
University faculty members have long noted particular challenges faced by individuals who differ from their colleagues and community in any of a number of ways.  This may include gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, urban / rural, or political commitments, among others.  While typically a university community better addresses these issues of difference than other settings, there remain some particular challenges for instructors, and these may be particularly acute for new faculty members.  These situations are best addressed directly, openly and early on to minimize the impact on an individual’s career.

Now, I realize that building a positive relationship (teacher-student) are more tricky. Requiring more care and skill because of its diversity. Teachers need to be more colloquial in its communication, active in listening, emphatise, humble,  Stay aware, use “I” statement, and use appropriate language. Teachers need to be an expert on being professionalism. This is the real test of his or her entire career.

For me, in my experience, since I was a product of public school. I came from in a diverse situation of the classroom. The problem for me is I was not cooperative in my teacher, when I notice that the teacher wants to approach me as his strategy in building a rapport and positive relationship, I was inductile. I felt awkward (culture belief).  I was not a habit of talking with the teacher individually or in groups. I was fearful at that time. My social learning is good. The result is my grade and personality(behavior) is lower, compare those who are active and always mingle with the teacher are resulting in a high achievement. I was thinking before a negative outlook in communicating the teacher. I can answer very well in oral recitation, but aside from oral has a negative meaning for me. I realize now, it’s my mistake.(reflection) It’s my fault. Not the teacher. Until year end came, then graduation, my attitude is not corrected. I was pretending that I was okay, together with my batch mate, but deep inside, I was not able to understand at that time. Now, I realize that I cannot blame my teacher anymore. It’s all depend on what apprehend with my journey (Constructivism). I end with saying “ Life is short, why I let the negative thoughts influence with me”. That’s a life of “relationship”.

REFERENCES:

Cited in the module 3B, Prof. Roja (2015) (E.) Working with Diverse Learners Student Diversity http://www.oercommons.org/courses/educational-psychology/view, pp 64 – 79

(Cruickshank, D. R., Metcalf, K. K., & Jenkins, D. B. (2009). Teaching diverse students (Chapter 3). In The act of teaching. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.)

Brown University, Classroom Communication Tips

Shashi Tiwari, Cognix Knowledge Group   Published on May 28, 2012, Interpersoanl skills for teachers,

http://www.slideshare.net/ShashiTiwari1/interpersoanl-skills-for-teachers

Sara Rimm-Kaufman, PhD, and Lia Sandilos, PhD, University of Virginia

MARYELLEN WEIMER, PHD,OCTOBER 5TH, 2010 http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-and-learning/building-rapport-with-your-students/

http://www.csun.edu/~acc50786/Education.html

Emily Gallagher, Department of Applied Psychology, The Effects of Teacher-Student Relationships: Social and Academic Outcomes of Low-Income Middle and High School Students

http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/appsych/opus/issues/2013/fall/gallagher

Willona M. Sloan,  (2015), Celebrating Students’ Diverse Strengths,http://www.ascd.org/publications/newsletters/educationupdate/feb08/vol50/num02/Celebrating-Students’-Diverse-Strengths.aspx

Overcoming teaching challenges, http://teachingcommons.cdl.edu/cdip/facultyteaching/Overcomingteachingchallenges.html

 Martha Burns, Ph.D, Aug 27, 2013            As Classrooms Become More Diverse, How Do We Help All Students Grow?

http://www.scilearn.com/blog/diverse-classrooms-all-students-grow

WOW- “world of Warcraft”

module 4

Image adapted from websearch

 

After I read all the sources of  activity of Module 3B, All I can say is “WOW”.  “Teaching Skill?” wow!  I ask myself do I have skill in teaching? I said Let’s see. Speaking of skill, it seems it needs a mastery and practice. A proficiency, craft, familiarity, and  ability.

This is not an online game of warcraft, but rather this a virtual world of skills and abilities to become a skillful in teaching.

During this week, there was an interrupting question in my mine regarding my group assignment, the TEACHING DEMO. At first, I cannot imagine what I’m going to explicit because I did not yet experience teaching demo in a formal school. Even classroom observation and Teacher’s interview I did not even experience rather. I was thinking to observe, but I don’t know what I’m going to be handed. I’m just relying my group mates to be on the school premises. And then they supplying data to be extracted.  Perhaps I need also to observe and to ask some subject teacher and students in the high school near in our home.

But as of now, I’m in the process of realizing, imagining, waiting what happened next to our group assignment. I decide to “Let’s see what I am going to do with the flow”.

Anyway, as I am answering the thread 1 of our discussion forum , I was enlightened  with the discussion of objective, in the resources 1 of instructional planning and assessment because it showed me the different kinds of objectives. This is my first time to see the differences of objectives. I thought there’s just only one kind of objective  But I’m mistaken. I thought objective is just only a sort of summarizing the goal or aim. But Objectives have three general levels.

Global objectives, often called “goals,” are broad, complex student
learning outcomes that require substantial time and instruction to accomplish.

Educational objectives represent a middle level of abstraction.

Instructional objectives are the least abstract and most specific type of
objective.

I am so much enlighten,  that objective, learning activities/teaching strategies, and assessment important to be aligned otherwise it can undermine both student motivation and learning. 

So far, as I go on in my journey, little by little I grasp some visualization of teaching skills and strategy. Perhaps this will bring me into a sort of experience that prepare me into a world of warcraft.

Wow, or world of Warcraft refers to expression if something to be like or appreciative skills. An ability to produce, which came from a massive experience. Not only here in the Philippines but also abroad. Teaching skills is not just an ordinary skill, but rather a Professional skill. That’s why I say’s that “world of warcraft” because teaching skill is a kind of asset in the whole world, that you can make proud of it.

 

References:

(Airasian, P. W., Engemann, J. F., and Gallagher, T. L. (2007). Instructional planning and assessment (Chapter 3). In Classroom assessment: Concepts and applications – First Canadian edition. Toronto, ON, Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.)